Literature Review - Empirical evidence for Schema Therapy

 Borderline Personality Disorder

 

  1. Arntz, A. Stupar-Rutemfrans, S., Bloo, J. & van Dyck. (2015) Prediction of treatment discontinuation and recovery from BPD: Results from an RCT comparing Schema Therapy and Transference Focused Psychotherapy. Behavior research and therapy, 74, 60-71.
  2. Farrell, J.M., Shaw, I.A., Webber, M.A. (2009) A schema-focused approach to group psychotherapy for outpatients with borderline personality disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 40, 317-328.
  3. Giesen-Bloo, J., van Dyck, R., Spinhoven, P., van Tilburg, W., Dirksen, C., van Asselt, T., Kremers, I., Nadort, M. & Arntz, A. (2006) Outpatient psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder: Randomised trial of schema-focused therapy versus transference-focused psychotherapy Archives of General Psychiatry, 63(6) 649-658.
  4. Nadort, M., Arntz, A., Smit, J.H., Giesen-Bloo, J., Eikelenboom, M., Spinhoven, P., van Asselt, T., Wensing, M. & van Dyck, R. (2009). Implementation of outpatient schema therapy for borderline personality disorder with versus without crisis support by the therapist outside office hours: A randomized trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47(11), 961-973.
  5. Nadort, M., van Dyck, R., Smit, J.H., Giesen-Bloo, J., Eikelenboom, M., Wensing, M., Spinhoven, P., Dirksen, C., Bleecke, J., van Milligen, B. & van Vreeswijk, M. (2009). Three preparatory studies for promoting implementation of outpatient schema therapy for borderline personality disorder in general mental health care. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47(11), 938-945.
  6. Sempertegui, G.A., Karreman, A., Arntz, A. & Bekker, M. (2012). Schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: a comprehensive review of its empirical foundations, effectiveness and implementation possibilities. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(3), 426-447.

 

Other Personality Disorders

  1. Bamelis, L., Evers, S., Spinhoven, P., & Arntz, A. (2014) Results of a multicenter randomized controlled trial of the clinical effectiveness of schema therapy for personality disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 17(3), 305-322.
  2. Weertman, A. & Arntz, A., (2007). Effectiveness of treatment of childhood memories in cognitive therapy for personality disorders: a controlled study contrasting methods focusing on the present and methods focusing on childhood memories. Behavior Research and Therapy, 45, 2133-2143.

 

Chronic Depression

  1. Carter, J., McIntosh, V., Jordan, J., Porter, R., Frampton, C. & Joyce, P. (2013). Psychotherapy for depression: a randomized clinical trial comparing schema therapy and cognitive behavior therapy. Journal of Affective Disorders, 151(2), 500-505. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.06.034.
  2. Malogiannis, I., Arntz, A., Spiropoulou, A., Aggeli, A., Karveli, S., Tsartsara, E., Vlavianou, M., Pehlivanidis, A., Papadimitriou, G. & Zervas, I. (2014). Schema Therapy for patients with chronic depression. A single case series study. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 45, 319-329.
  3. Porter, R.J., Bourke, C., Carter, J.D., Douglas, K.M., McIntosh, V.V.W., Jordan, J., Joyce, P.R. and Frampton, C.M.A. (2016). No change in neuropsychological dysfunction or emotional processing during treatment of major depression with cognitive–behaviour therapy or schema therapy. Psychological medicine, 46(02), 393-404.
  4. Renner, F., Arntz, A., Leeuw, I., & Huibers, M. (2013). Treatment for chronic depression using schema therapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 20(2), 166-180.
  5. Renner, F., Arntz, A., Peeters, F. P., Lobbestael, J., & Huibers, M. J. (2016). Schema therapy for chronic depression: Results of a multiple single case series. Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry, 51, 66-73.
  6. Seavey, A., & Moore, T. M. (2012). Schema-Focused Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder and Personality Disorder: A Case Study. Clinical Case Studies, 11(6), 457-473.

 

Anxiety Disorders

  1. Cockram, D., Drummond, P. & Lee, C. (2010). Role and treatment of early maladaptive schemas in Vietnam veterans with PTSD. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 17, 165-182.
  2. Gude, T. & Hoffart, H. (2008). Change in interpersonal problems after cognitive agoraphobia and schema focused therapy versus psychodynamic treatment as usual of inpatients with agoraphobia and Cluster C personality disorders. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49, 195-199.

 

Eating Disorders

 

  1. Hodge, L. & Simpson, S. (2016). Speaking the Unspeakable: Artistic expression in Eating Disorder Research and Schema Therapy. The Arts in Psychotherapy. 50, 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.aip.2016.05.005
  2. Keith, L., Gillanders, D. & Simpson, S. (2009). An exploration of the main sources of shame in an eating disordered population. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 16, 317-327.
  3. McIntosh, V. V., Jordan, J., Carter, J. D., Frampton, C. M., McKenzie, J. M., Latner, J. D., & Joyce, P. R. (2016). Psychotherapy for transdiagnostic binge eating: A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy, appetite-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy, and schema therapy. Psychiatry research, 240, 412-420.
  4. Simpson, S., Morrow, E., van Vreeswijk, M. & Reid, C., (2010). Group schema therapy for eating disorders: A pilot study. Frontiers in Psychology in Clinical Settings, 1, 182.
  5. Simpson, S. & Slowey, L. (2011). Video Therapy for Atypical Eating Disorder and Obesity: A Case Study  Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, 7(1), 38-43. doi:10.2174/1745017901107010038
  6. Talbot, D., Smith, E., Tomkins, A., Brockman, R., Simpson, S. Schema modes in eating disorders compared to a community sample. Journal of Eating Disorders. 3(1), 1. doi:10.1186/s40337-015-0082-y

 

Group Schema Therapy

  1. Dickhaut, V. & Arntz, A. (2014). Combined group and individual schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: A pilot study. J. Behav. Ther. & Exp. Psychiat. 45, 242e251
  2.  2.   Farrell, J., Shaw, I., Webber, M. (2009). A schema-focused approach to group psychotherapy for outpatients with borderline personality disorder: a randomized controlled trial. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry, 40(2), 317-28. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2009.01.002. Epub 2009 Jan 14.
  3. Skewes, S., Samson, R., Simpson, S. & van Vreeswijk, M. (2014). Short-term group schema therapy for mixed personality disorders: A pilot study Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1592. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01592
  4. Simpson, S., Skewes, S., van Vreeswijk, M. & Samson, R. (2015). Commentary: Short-term group schema therapy for mixed personality disorders: An introduction to the treatment protocol. Frontiers in Psychology, 6 (Article 609), 1-3. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00609
  5. van Vreeswijk M. F., Spinhoven P., Eurelings-Bontekoe E. H. M., Broersen J. (2012). Changes in symptom severity, schemas and modes in heterogeneous psychiatric patient groups following short term schema cognitive-behavioural group therapy: a naturalistic pre-post treatment design in an outpatient clinic. Clin. Psychol. Psychother. 21, 29–38 doi:10.1002/cpp.1813

 

General Review Articles

  1. Bakos, D.S., Gallo, A.E. & Wainer, R. (2015). Systematic review of the clinical effectiveness of schema therapy. Contemp Behav Health Care, 1.  doi: 10.15761/CBHC.1000104
  2. Hopwood, C. & Thomas, K. (2014). Schema therapy is an effective treatment for avoidant, dependent and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. Evid Based Ment Health;17(3):90-1. doi: 10.1136/eb-2014-101858.
  3. Jacob, G., Arntz, A. (2013). Schema Therapy for Personality Disorders – A Review. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 6(2), 171-185.
  4. Masley, S., Gillanders, D., Simpson, S. & Taylor, M. (2012). A Systematic Review of the Evidence Base for Schema Therapy. Cognitive behaviour therapy, 41(3), 185-202. doi:10.1080/16506073.2011.614274
  5. Pugh, M. (2015). A narrative review of schemas and schema therapy outcomes in the eating disorders. Clinical Psychology Review, 39, 30-41.
  6. Sempertegui, G.A., Karreman, A., Arntz, A. & Bekker, M. (2012). Schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: a comprehensive review of its empirical foundations, effectiveness and implementation possibilities. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(3), 426-447.
  7. Taylor, C. D. J., Bee, P. and Haddock, G. (2016), Does schema therapy change schemas and symptoms? A systematic review across mental health disorders. Psychol Psychother Theory Res Pract. doi:10.1111/papt.12112

 

Forensic Applications

  1. Bernstein, D., Arntz, A. & de Vos, M. (2007) Schema Focused Therapy in Forensic Settings: Theoretical Model and Recommendations for Best Clinical Practice. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 6(2), 169-183.
  2. Bernstein, D.P., Nijman, H., Karos, K., Keulen-de Vos, M., de Vogel, V., & Lucker, T. (2012). Schema Therapy for forensic patients with personality disorders: Design and preliminary findings of multicenter randomized clinical trial in the Netherlands. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 11, 312-324.
  3. Chakhssi, F., Kersten, T., de Ruiter, C., & Bernstein, D.P. (2014). Treating the untreatable: A single case study of a psychopathic patient treated with Schema Therapy. Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy (Chic), 51(3):447-61. doi: 10.1037/a0035773

4 October 2016 - Lisa Chantler and Susan Simpson